Cotton Farming in India: All you need to know
India relies heavily on cotton as a major export commodity and source of textiles. As per the statistics of the Indian ministry of textiles, “India got 1st place in the world in cotton acreage with 120.69 Lakh Hectares area under cotton cultivation i.e. around 36% of world area of 333 Lakh Hectares.“ The cotton textile industry relies on it as a primary raw material source.
Leading producers of cotton crops in India are Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Telangana along with Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.
In this blog, we will take a look at the basics of cotton farming in India.
Conditions required for Cotton cultivation in India
Cotton needs a high temperature that stays the same, between 21 and 30 degrees Celsius. The irrigated cotton crop is planted from March to May, and the rain-fed crop is planted in June and July when the monsoon season starts. As cotton requires frost-free conditions to grow well, cotton is always reaped at the onset of winter in India.
Soil required for cotton farming in India
Cotton can be cultivated on every sort of soil having pH levels in-between 6 and 8. Deep, friable, well-drained and fertile soil is suitable for cotton crop production. One should always keep in mind that sandy, salty, or waterlogged soils are not suitable for cotton farming.
Soil management practices that can be adopted by farmers in India
Popular varieties of cotton seeds
The following are the popular cotton seed varieties;
- MRC 6301BT
- LHH 144
- RCH 317BT
- F 846
- Ankur 651
You can find top brands like Nagraj Bollgard II, King Kesari BG II and Trilok 9 Bollgard II on our website.
Cotton seed is concealed by short fiber. Getting rid of this is a must before you plant seeds, as it will create a lot of problems when you go to plant them. Both chemical and non-chemical approaches can be used to get rid of it.
Seeds used in the non-chemical approach are soaked in water for a night, then rubbed with cow dung and wood ash or sawdust the following day, and then dried in a shed before being planted.
For the chemical approach, you’ll need to mix 400 gm of concentrated Sulphuric acid (Industrial grade) per 3 kg of cotton seed for about two minutes, depending on the number of fibers on the seeds. All the seed pulp will be completely consumed. Then, you need to add 10 liters of water to the container, give it a good stir, and drain it. The seeds should be washed three times with regular water and then soaked in lime water (50 grams of sodium bicarbonate per 10 liters of water) for one minute. Dry the seeds in a shed after one more washing.
Cotton is sown using a seed drill or a dibbler. Go for square planting in cotton, as when compared to rectangle planting, square planting has many advantages.
After two weeks, check your seedlings for any signs of disease or damage and pull out the ones that aren’t looking good.
It is recommended that a seeding rate of 15–25 kg/ha be used in irrigated conditions, and the row spacing should be between 75–90 cm. In rain-fed systems, the seeding rate for cotton varieties should be between 12 and 16 kg/ha, and the row spacing should be between 45 and 60 cm.
Top Qualities to Look at While Buying Cotton Seeds
Fertilizer for cotton farming
Careful use of fertilizers, irrigation, and clean farming will keep pests from building up too quickly and help keep their natural enemies around. At the time of the last plowing, add well-rotted cow manure at a rate of 5–10 tons per acre for rain-fed soil and 10–20 tons per acre for irrigated soil. To get a higher yield, spray the plants with 10 gm/L of potassium and 20 gm/L of DAP (2-3 sprays each at 15 days intervals from first blooming).
NPK Fertilizers and biofertilizers are some of the best fertilizers to consider for high-yield cotton farming, You should buy high-quality fertilizers and other nutrients and growth promoters to increase the production of standard cotton crops.
Watering the cotton seed
Depending on the amount of rain that fell, cotton requires between four and six irrigations. Four to six weeks after planting, water the crop for the first time. The remaining land should be irrigated every two to three weeks. Avoid flower and boll loss by ensuring the crop has sufficient water during the flowering and fruiting stages. Once 33% of the bolls have opened, watering is no longer necessary.
Cotton Plant protection
To successfully do cotton farming in India, you need to understand the risks of diseases such as nutrient deficiency and pests. To realize better yield and quality of cotton, you must mitigate the following diseases and pests, you should take care of these diseases and pests that affect the quality and yield.
- Fusarium wilt
- Leaf spots
- Alternaria Leaf spot
- Cercospora leaf spot
- Root rot
- Pink bollworm
- Tobacco Caterpillar
- Spotted Bollworm
- White fly
- Mealy bugs
You can protect your cotton crop from such pests and diseases by spraying pesticides. If you have any trouble finding the best place to buy pesticides you can go for the leading online agriculture marketplace in India such as BadiKheti and buy from there.
When bolls are fully ripe, they can be harvested. Early and late harvests typically have lower quality and should not be combined with other crops to increase their market value. To receive a fair price for your cotton boll, make sure it’s dry and clean. You should select when there is no dew on the ground. The cotton must be picked at regular intervals (every 7 to 10 days) to prevent losses caused by the plant’s natural tendency to shed its fibers.
Why Should You Buy Cotton Seeds From Badi Kheti?
Because You can buy good quality cotton seeds at reasonable price than others. Also, you can get everything you need for your cotton farming, such as, organic fertilizer, farming gear, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, agro-nutrition items, and farming equipment.
Badikheti is stocked with all of the best-known names in the agricultural industry. Choose your preferred label, and then place an online order to receive bulk pricing. Badikheti is the best site to buy cotton seeds online at affordable rates in India.