Selecting the Ideal Onion Seed Variety for Regional Climates in India
India is the second largest producer of onions in the world after China. The onion, also known as ‘pyaaz’, is an indispensable part of Indian cuisine and is used in most curries, gravies, snacks, and condiments. Selecting the right onion seed variety from authentic online agriculture ecommerce store like Badikheti suited for the regional climate is crucial for good yields and quality produce.
Here are some tips on choosing onion seed varieties for different parts of India:
North Indian Plains
The Indo-Gangetic plains have extremely hot summers and cold winters. Hence, day-neutral, short-day onion seed varieties like Pusa Red, Pusa Ratnar, Pusa Madhavi, Arka Kalyan, and Arka Niketan are ideal. These types of onion seeds mature quickly, taking 100-110 days. The Agrifound Light Red onion and N-53 are also recommended. During extreme winter, mulching and light irrigation help protect the crop.
Central and Western India
The climate is moderately hot and dry, with mild winters. Early maturing varieties like Baswant-780, Kunwari, and N-2-4-1 suit this region. Hybrid seeds of Onion like Bhima Shakti and Bhima Shweta give higher yields. The moderately intense Bhima Kiran is perfect for dehydration and export purposes.
The Deccan Plateau has a tropical climate with very hot summers and mild winters. Hence, cultivars like Arka Bindu, Arka Kirthiman, Bellary Red, and CO-3 do well. The pungent Arka Pragati is ideal for culinary purposes. Long-day types of onion seeds like Arka Lalima can be planted with irrigation in the drier regions.
The hills experience pleasant summers and very cold winters. Day-neutral onion seed varieties like Arka Suvarna, Arka Kirtiman, and Pusa Red are recommended for 1000-1500m altitudes. For higher elevations of 1500-2400m, N-53 and VL-3 are suitable. Local onion varieties like Palam Rosha and Palam Lovdar perform well in Himachal Pradesh.
Humidity levels are high due to proximity to the sea. Varieties of onion seeds like Bhima Super, Bhima Kiran, and Bellary Red do well in Maharashtra and Karnataka coasts. Onion seed varieties such as Arka Niketan and Arka Kalyan are ideal for the Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh coasts.
Heavy mulching helps prevent weed growth.
During the June-September monsoon, excessive moisture can lead to diseases in the storage of onions. Hence, mostly multiplier onion sets like Santra, Kalyanpur White, and Purshu Red are grown. Very early maturing cultivars such as VL-1, VL-2, Punjab Selection, and Pusa Riddhi can be planted with adequate drainage.
High-quality onion seeds are essential for successful onion growth. Whether you’re a seasoned farmer or a beginner, buying the best quality onion seeds is important.
Growing Conditions for Optimum Yields
To grow onions from seeds, choosing the appropriate variety for your growing conditions and environment is important. Onions need cool weather during early stages and warm, dry weather for bulb formation. Day temps of 20-30°C and night temps of 10-15°C are optimal.
Well-drained, sandy loam to clay soil with good organic content and a pH of 6.0-6.8 is ideal for Onion farming. Avoid waterlogged areas.
Seed Rate and Spacing
Use a seed rate of 4-5 kg/acre for small bulbs and 8-10 kg/acre for large bulbs. Space the onion plants 15cm x 7.5cm for small types and 15cm x 10cm for large ones.
Apply 60 kg N, 50 kg P, and 50 kg K per hectare. Side dress with nitrogen in 2-3 splits after transplanting.
Onions need uniform moisture during early growth. Delayed watering can cause bolting. Stop watering once the tops fall for better storage quality.
Choosing the most suitable onion seed variety based on regional factors can help maximize yields and income for Indian farmers. High-quality seed selection and best cultivation practices will produce a healthy onion crop. Buy onion seeds today from top agriculture marketplaces such as Badi Kheti!